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(1)原因because、because of、so、for、since、as、result from、originate from、derive from; base、basis、reason,、above all、after all等。


① The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. ② The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children"s version)。 ③ Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. ④ Superhigh scores like vos Savant"s are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. ⑤ Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant"s because

[A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures.

[B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now.

[C] vos Savant"s case is an extreme one that will not repeat.

[D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed.

(2)结果:thus, therefore, consequently, in consequence, as a result; lead to, attribute to, result, consequence, result in, cause等。


We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from ________.

[A] uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

[B] exclusive use of them for social purposes

[C] quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

[D] careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms



There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access ― after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we"ve ever had.

56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it ________.

[A] offers economic potentials

[B] can bring foreign funds

[C] can soon wipe out world poverty

[D] connects people all over the world







Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs ― the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”

69. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because ________.

[A] they think of it as immoral

[B] their pursuits are not fame or wealth

[C] ambition is not closely related to material benefits

[D] they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible



① It never rains but it pours. ② Just as bosses and boards have finally sorted out their worst accounting and compliance troubles, and improved their feeble corporation governance, a new problem threatens to earn them C especially in America C the sort of nasty headlines that inevitably lead to heads rolling in the executive suite: data insecurity. ③ Left, until now, to odd, low-level IT staff to put right, and seen as a concern only of data-rich industries such as banking, telecoms and air travel, information protection is now high on the boss"s agenda in businesses of every variety.

36. The statement “It never rains but it pours” is used to introduce

[A] the fierce business competition.

[B] the feeble boss-board relations.

[C] the threat from news reports.

[D] the severity of data leakage.



① Anyway, the townsfolk can"t understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy. (②The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row.③ Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 percent occupied all year long and this year they"ll do better.)④ The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low.

29. According to the townsfolk, the RSC deserves no subsidy because ________.

[A] ticket prices can be raised to cover the spending

[B] the company is financially ill-managed

[C] the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable

[D] the theatre attendance is on the rise



Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it"s obvious that a majority of the president"s advisers still don"t take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research ― a classic case of “paralysis by analysis.”

28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, Paragraph 4)?

[A] Endless studies kill action.

[B] Careful investigation reveals truth.

[C] Prudent planning hinders progress.

[D] Extensive research helps decision-making.



① It"s no surprise that Jennifer Senior"s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter C nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience.② Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. ③ Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.”

36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring

[A]temporary delight

[B]enjoyment in progress

[C]happiness in retrospect

[D]lasting reward



Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.

59. What is the passage mainly about?

[A] needs of the readers all over the world

[B] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers

[C] origins of the declining newspaper industry

[D] aims of a journalism credibility project

Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.



Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in






① Several massive leakages of customer and employee data this year C from organizations as diverse as Time Warner, the American defense contractor Science Applications International Corp and even the University of California, Berkeley C have left managers hurriedly peering into their intricate IT systems and business processes in search of potential vulnerabilities.

37. According to Paragraph 2, some organizations check their systems to find out

[A] whether there is any weak point.

[B] what sort of data has been stolen.

[C] who is responsible for the leakage.

[D] how the potential spies can be located.




一些明显的`转折词包括but、however、yet(谓语句首)、though、on the contrary; Although/ While/ In spite of/ Despite――,――;等,转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者往往偏重转折处后面的内容。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能做上标志以方便做题时候的查找。


The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing.

35. The text intends to tell us that

[A] the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.

[B] human height is becoming even more predictable.

[C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.

[D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.






① To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, “all that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing.” ② One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research. ③ Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. ④ Leaders of the animal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. ⑤ Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.

46. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke"s words to ________.

[A] call on scientists to take some actions

[B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights

[C] warn of the doom of biomedical research

[D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement