| 知识积累 |




  1、appease(vt)make sb/sth quiet or calm,usu by making concessions or by satisfying demands 使


  appease sb’s anger 平息某人的怒气

  ◎ appeasement(n)平息的行动或政策(尤指为避免战争对潜在敌人作出的让步);安抚,姑 息

  ★ placate(vt)make sb less angry;soothe or pacify 安慰,抚慰某人,使某人平静,息怒

  ◎ placatory(adj)安慰的,抚慰的,和解的

  2、catastrophe(n)sudden great desaster or misfortune 突如其来的大灾难或大灾祸

  The earthquake was a terrible catastrophe 这次地震是可怕的灾难。

  ◎ catastrophic(adj)灾难性的

  ★ calamity(n)serious misfortune or disaster 灾祸,灾难

  There are worse calamities than failing your driving test 比起你驾驶考试不合格来,更大的灾难还 多着呢。

  3、daunt(vt)(通常用于被动语态)discourage sb;frighten 使某人气馁,威吓;

  I was rather daunted by the thought of addressing such an audience 我一想到要对这样的 听众讲话,就有些胆小。

  (习语)nothing daunted 毫无惧色,毫不气馁

  ★ dismay(n)feeling of shock and discouragement 惊愕,气馁,灰心

  We watched in blank dismay as she packed her bags 我们瞧着她打行李,感到无可奈何。

  4、gape(vi)(贬)stare with an open mouth,usu in surprise 目瞪口呆的凝视,张嘴注视 ~ at sb/sth

  What are you gaping at?你目瞪口呆的看什么呢?

  ★ gawk(vi)(口)stare impolitely or stupidly;无礼的或呆呆的瞪眼看 ~ at sb/sth

  I hate being gawking at。我讨厌任佳直瞪着我。

  5、duration(n)time during which sth lasts or continues 持续时间,期间

  for the duration of this government 本届政府执政期间

  ★ period(n)length or portion of time 一段时间,时期

  He has had several long periods of time abroad。他在国外长期工作过几次。

  ◎ periodic(adj)定期的,周期的

  6、implore(vt)ask or beg sb earnestly;beseech 恳求或乞求某人;哀求;

  They implored her to stay 他们恳求她留下。

  ◎ imploring(adj)哀求的,恳求的

  ★ entreat(vt)ask sb for sth earnestly and feelingly;beg (为某事)恳求某人 ~ sth of sb

  May I entreat a favor of you?您能帮帮忙么?

  ◎ entreaty(n)恳求,请求,要求

  7、muffle(vt)wrap or cover sb/sth for warmth or protection 包裹或覆盖某人某物(为保暖或保 护) ~ sb/sth up in sth

  He walked out into the snow,heavily muffled up in a thick scarf and warm overcoat。他雪天出门, 裹着厚厚的围巾,穿着暖和的大衣。

  ★ wrap(vt)cover or enclose sth in soft or flexible material (用软的或可弯曲的材料)包或裹某 物 ~ sth up in sth

  I have wrapped up the parcels and they’re ready to be posted。我把包裹都包好了,可以寄出去了。

  8、prank(n)playful or mischievous trick 玩笑,恶作剧

  ★ trick(n)thing done in order to deceive or outwit sb 诡计,计谋,花招,骗术

  We need a trick to get past the guards 我们需要用计骗过岗哨。

  9、saunter(vi)walk in a leisurely way;stroll 漫步,闲逛

  saunter down the avenue 沿着林荫道漫步

  ★ stroll(vi)walk in a slow leisurely way 散步;漫步;闲逛;溜达

  He strolls in and out as he pleases 他随意的出来进去闲逛。

  10、trickle(v)cause sth to flow in a thin stream 使某物成小股流动

  Blood trickled from the wound 血液从伤口流出来。

  ★ drip(vi)fall in drops 滴下

  Rain was dripping down from the trees 雨水从树上滴下。


  1、astound(vt)(通常用于被动语态)overcome sb with surprise or shock;amaze 使震惊,使 大吃一惊;使惊奇

  We were astounded to read your letter 我们看了你的信大吃一惊。

  ◎ astounding(adj)使人震惊的

  ★ amaze(vt)(尤用于被动语态)fill sb with great surprise or wonder 使某人惊异或惊奇

  We were amazed at the change in his appearance 他的样子变得使我们大为惊奇。

  2、clan(n)group of families,esp in Scotland,descended from a common ancestor 宗族,家族;


  ★ tribe(n)racial group(esp in a primitive or nomadic culture)united by language,religion,customs etc and living as a community under one or more chiefs 部落

  3、distort(vt)pull or twist sth out of its usual shape 使某物变形,扭曲,弄歪某物

  a face distorted by pain 因疼痛而扭曲的脸

  (vt)make sth look or sound unnatural 使某物失真

  The announcement was so distorted that I couldn’t understand what was said 通告播出的声音严重失 真,我听不懂说的是什么。

  ★ falsify(vt)alter falsely 窜改(如文件);伪造;

  falsify records 伪造记录

  (vt)present sth falsely 歪曲(某事物)

  falsify an issue 歪曲问题

  4、entrust(vt)trust sb to take charge of sth/sb 委托某人负责某事物(照看某人) ~ A to B ~

  B with A

  He entrusted his children to me 他托我照看一天孩子。

  ★ commit(vt)do sth illegal,wrong or foolish 做不合法的、错的或愚蠢的事;犯

  commit murder 犯凶杀

  5、glutton(n)person who eats too much 贪吃的人,吃的过多的人

  You’ve eaten the whole pie,you glutton 你把整块馅饼都吃了,你这贪吃鬼!

  ★ gormandizer(n)(贬)大吃大喝的人

  6、invalid(adj)not properly based or able to be upheld by reasoning 无适当根据的,无道理的, 站不住脚的;

  an invalid argument 站不住脚的论据

  (adj)not usable;not officially acceptable (because of an incorrect detail or details); not legally recognized 无用的,不能正式接受的,法律上不承认的,无效的

  A passport that is out of date is invalid 护照过期的是无效的


  He has been an invalid all his life 他终身残废。

  ★ worthless(adj)having no value or usefulness 无价值的,没用的

  This contract is now worthless。这份合同现在毫无价值了。

  7、overtone(n)(通常做复数)something suggested or implied in addition to what is actually stated; hint 暗示,含义,弦外之音

  overtones of despair in a letter 信中字里行间的绝望之意

  ★ implication(n)含义,暗示,暗指 ~ for sb/sth

  The new report has far-reaching implications for the future of broadcasting 这一新报告对广播业的 前途有些意味深长的暗示

  8、probe(n)tool for examining a place which cannot be reached otherwise,esp a thin implement with

  a blunt end used by a doctor for examining a wound 探察工具,探测器;(尤指医生用的)探子, 探针

  (vt)explore or examine sth with or as if with a probe (用或似用探针等)探查,探测

  He probed the swelling anxiously with his finger 他很担心的用手指触摸肿处。

  ★ investigate(v)find out and examine all the facts about sth in order to obtain the truth 调查,侦察

  Scientists are investigating to find out the cause of the crash 科学家们正在调查失事的原因。

  (vt)find out detailed facts about sb or his character by questioning observation,etc 审问,审查

  Applicants for government posts are always thoroughly investigated before being appointed 申请担任政府公职的人总要经过彻底审查才能受到委任。

  9、shrine(n)any place that is regarded as hole because of its associations with a special person or event 神圣的地方或处所;圣地,圣坛;神龛

  Wimbledon is a shrine for all lovers of tennis 温布尔登是所有网球爱好者的圣地。

  ★ sanctuary(n)sacred place,eg a church,temple or mosque 圣所,圣地(如教堂、庙宇或回 教寺院)


  The fleeing rebels found a sanctuary in the nearby church 叛乱后逃跑的人躲进附近教堂寻求庇护。

  10、statut(en)law passed by Parliament or a similar law-making body and written down formally 成文法,法规,法令

  (n)any of the rules of an institution 条例;规则,章程

  under the University’s statutes 根据该大学的章程

  ★ bill(n)帐单;广告,招贴,海报,告示;(电影院、剧场等的)节目单;(提交议会讨论 的)法案

  (v)send sb a bill for sth 送交某人帐单(要求为某事物付帐) ~ sb for sth

  I can’t pay for the books now。Will you bill me for them later?这些书我现在不能付款,事后给我 寄帐单来好么?

  11、writhe(vi)(of sb or sb’s body)twist or roll about,esp because of great pain (指某人或身 体)扭动或翻滚)(尤指因剧痛)

  The patient was writhing about on the bed in agony 病人疼的在床上直打滚。

  ★ wriggle(v)cause sth to make quick,short twisting and turning movements 使某物扭动、蠕动、 蜿蜒行进

  I can’t brush your hair if you keep wriggling all the time 你要是一直扭来扭去,我就没法给 你梳头了。


  1、behold(vt)(古或修辞,常用于祈使语气) 看(尤指不寻常之物)

  The babe was a wonder to behold。这个婴儿看上去令人称奇。

  ★ observe(vt)(只用于被动语态) see and notice sb/sth;watch carefully 看到,注意到某人 某事物;观察,监视

  He observed keenly,but says little 他观察敏锐,但是很少说话

  2、condescend(vi)(贬)do sth that one regards as undignified or below one’s level of importance 屈尊,俯就

  She actually condescended to say hello to me in the street today。她今天在街上竟能屈尊跟我打招呼。

  (vi)(贬)behave kindly or graciously,but in a way that shows one feels that one is better than other people (带有优越感的)故意表示和蔼可亲 ~ to sb

  I do wish he wouldn’t condescend to the junior staff in his department。我但愿他不要假惺惺的纡尊降贵接近部门的低级员工。

  ★ deign(vt)(有时做贬语或反语)be kind or gracious enough to do sth;condescend 屈尊,俯就(做某事)

  He walked past me without even deigning to look at me。他从我身旁走过,竟没有屈尊看我一眼。

  3、dike(n)ditch for allowing water to flow away from land 排水沟

  (n)long wall of earth,etc to keep back water and prevent flooding(拦水防洪的)上堤,堤坝

  ★ bank(n)河边的斜坡;河边的土地;河岸;河畔


  4、flip(vt)toss sth with a sharp movement of the thumb and forefinger so that is turns over in the air


  flip a coin 捻硬币(抛向空中)

  (vt)turn sth over quickly 快速的翻转某物 ~ sth over

  flip the pages over 很快的翻着书页。

  ★ toss(vt)throw sth lightly or carelessly or easily 扔,抛,掷 ~ sth to sb

  He tossed the book down on the table 他把书扔在桌子上。

  5、grisly(adj)causing horror or terror ghastly 恐怖的,可怕的

  the grisly remains of the half-eaten corpses 尸体被吃掉一半的恐怖残骸

  ★ horrible(adj)causing horror 可怕的,令人恐惧的


  6、knave(n)dishonest man;man without honour 不诚实的人,不名誉的人

  ★ rogue(n)dishonest or unprincipled man 不诚实的或不道德的男子;无耻之徒;


  He’s a charming rogue 他是个淘气鬼

  7、parley(n)(尤指正式的)meeting between enemies or opponents to discuss terms for peace, etc 敌对双方的和谈

  (v)have a parley 与某人谈判 ~ with sb

  ★ negotiation(n 不可数名词或可数名词,做可数名词时常做复数)discussion aimed at reaching an agreement;negotiating 商议;谈判;让与;流通

  The price is a matter for negotiation 价格是可以谈判的。

  8、shred(n)(尤做复数)strip or piece torn,cut or scraped from sth (撕下、切下或刮下的) 细条,碎片

  The jacket was torn to shreds by the barbed wire 那件夹克让铁丝网给挂碎了。

  ★ fragment(n)small part or piece broken off(sth) 某物的碎片;某物的片断或不完整部分

  I heard only a fragment of their conversation 我只听到他们谈话的只言片语。

  ◎ fragmentary(adj)支离破碎的

  9、surmise(vt)suppose sth without having evidence that makes it certain;guess 猜测某事物,猜想,揣测

  With no news from the explorers we can only surmise their present position 我们没有探险者的消息,只能猜测他们现在所处的位置。

  ★ guess(v) give an answer,form an opinion or make a statement about sth without calculating or measuring and without definite knowledge 猜想,估计,臆测,推测 ~ at sth

  10、vicissitude(n)(通常做复数)change in one’s circumstances,esp for the worse (个人境况的)改变,(尤指)变坏

  ★ variety(n)quality of not being the same,or not being the same at all times 变化,多样化

  (n)number or range of different things;assortment 若干不同事物的混合 ~ of sth

  11、warden(n)person responsible for supervising sth 负责监督、监护或监管的人

  the warden of a youth hostel 青年招待所的管理员

  ★ watchman(n)person employed to guard a building (受雇看守建筑物,如银行、办公楼或工厂的)警卫员,看守人(尤指夜间的)